ISSN: 2306-5737E-ISSN: 2658-4069
Acta Linguistica Petropolitana
Transactions of the Institute for Linguistic Studies
ISSN: 2306-5737E-ISSN: 2658-4069
Acta Linguistica Petropolitana
Transactions of the Institute for Linguistic Studies 

On the phonological status of the affricate ts in Soikkola Ingrian

PDF, 2.01 Mb
Rozhanskiy F. I., Markus Ye. B. O fonologicheskom statuse affrikaty ts v soykinskom dialekte izhorskogo yazyka. Acta Linguistica Petropolitana. 2020. XVI(3): 440–479.

This paper considers the affricate ts in Soikkola Ingrian. The research is based on the field data recorded in 2013–2017 from Ingrian native speakers. The data were collected by elicitation using specially elaborated phonetic questionnaires.

The aim of the study is to determine the phonological status of ts in Soikkola Ingrian by analyzing its acoustic phonetic properties. The affricate is tested against seven criteria; and it is shown that the Soikkola Ingrian ts has properties of both a phoneme and a cluster.

Three criteria bring out the difference between ts and a typical consonant cluster: the component s does not change into š when a part of ts (unlike in other contexts); the burst of t is often spread as opposed to the compact burst in other clusters with plosives; and the duration ratio of t and s is different from the ratio of the components in other clusters (t is significantly longer than s).

Four criteria distinguish ts from a typical single phoneme: ts is rare as an initial consonant in a word; it does not participate in grade alternations (unlike in the neighboring Votic language where ts alternates similarly to plosives); the duration of ts is similar to the duration of a cluster but not a singleton; and ts does not block the reduction of the second vowel in the CVCV structure (in this structure, the second vowel is prolonged if the preceding consonant is a singleton, but it gets reduced both qualitatively and quantitatively if preceded by a geminate or a cluster).

The conclusion is that the affricate ts has to be considered either as a non-prototypical phoneme or as a non-prototypical consonant cluster.

The paper also briefly addresses the properties of the affricate in the same variety. The affricate behaves differently from ts (it can appear as a word-initial consonant, the duration of its two components is comparable, etc.), but still cannot be considered as a regular consonant or a regular cluster.

The research demonstrates that the phonological system of Soikkola Ingrian is non-orthogonal: the decision about the phonological status of either affricate correlates with the phonological interpretation of the other affricate and some other consonants.

Ingrian language, Finnic languages, phonetics, phonology, affricates, reduction, consonant gradation
Boersma, Weenink 2014
P. Boersma, D. Weenink. Praat: doing phonetics by computer [Computer program]. Version 5.3.82, retrieved 26 July 2014 from
Brodskaya 2015
I. Brodskaya. Durational patterns of the trisyllabic foot in Soikkola Ingrian. M.A. thesis. San Francisco: San Francisco State University, 2015.
Kuznetsova 2009a
N. V. Kuznetsova. Fonologicheskie sistemy izhorskikh dialektov [Phonological systems of Ingrian dialects]. Candidate thesis. St. Petersburg: Institute of Linguistic Studies RAS, 2009.
Kuznetsova 2009b
N. V. Kuznetsova. Suprasegmentnaya fonologiya soykinskogo dialekta izhorskogo yazyka v tipologicheskom aspekte [Suprasegmental phonology of the Soikkola dialect of Ingrian in a cross-linguistic perspective]. Voprosy yazykoznaniya. 2009. No. 5. P. 18–47.
Kuznetsova 2013
N. Kuznetsova. Finnic foot nucleus lengthening: From phonetics to phonology. E. Liina Asu, P. Lippus (eds.). Nordic Prosody. Proceedings of the XIth Conference, Tartu 2012. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2013. P. 205–214.
Laanest 1966
A. Laanest. Izhorskiye dialekty. Lingvogeoraficheskoye issledovaniye [Ingrian dialects. A linguistic geographic study]. Tallinn: Institute of Language and Literature, Academy of Sciences of the Estonian SSR, 1966.
Laanest 1975
A. Laanest. Pribaltiysko-finskie yazyki [Balto-Finnic languages]. V. I. Lytkin, K. E. Maytinskaya, K. Rédei (eds.). Osnovy finno-ugorskogo yazykoznaniya [Basics of Finno-Ugric Linguistics]. Vol. 2. Pribaltiysko-finskie, saamskiy i mordovskie yazyki [Balto-Finnic, Sami and Mordovian languages]. Moscow: Nauka, 1975. P. 5–247.
Laanest 1978
A. Laanest. Istoricheskaya fonetika i morfologiya izhorskogo yazyka [Historical phonetics and morphology of Ingrian]. Doctoral thesis. Tallinn: Institute of Language and Literature, Academy of Sciences of the Estonian SSR, 1978.
Lehiste 1976
I. Lehiste. Suprasegmental Features of Speech. N. J. Lass (ed.). Contemporary Issues in Experimental Phonetics. New York; San Francisco; London: Academic Press, 1976. P. 225–239.
Levshina 2015
N. Levshina. How to do Linguistics with R. Data exploration and statistical analysis. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: Benjamins, 2015.
Lippus 2005
P. Lippus. Võru afrikaat ts ja eesti konsonantühend ts. Tartu Ülikooli Lõuna-Eesti keele- ja kultuuriuuringute keskuse aastaraamat. 2005. No. 4. L. 54–64.
Markus 2010
E. Markus. Primary and secondary geminates in Ingrian. Linguistica Uralica. 2010. Vol. 46. No. 1. P. 38–52.
Markus 2011
E. Markus. The phonetics and phonology of a disyllabic foot in Soikkola Ingrian. Linguistica Uralica. 2011. Vol. 47. No. 2. P. 103–119.
Markus, Rozhanskiy 2017
Ye. B. Markus, F. I. Rozhanskiy. Sovremennyy vodskiy yazyk. Teksty i grammaticheskiy ocherk [Modern Votic language. Texts and grammar sketch]. 2nd edition. St. Peterburg: Nestor-Istoriya, 2017.
Nirvi 1971
R. Nirvi (ed.). Inkeroismurteiden sanakirja (Lexica societatis Fenno-­Ugricae. Vol. XVIII). Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura, 1971.
Porkka 1885
V. Porkka. Über den ingrischen Dialekt mit Berücksichtigung der übrigen finnisch-ingermanländischen Dialekte. Helsingfors: J. C. Frenckell & Sohn, 1885.
Saar 2014
E. Saar. Types of consonant alternation in the inflectional system of Soikkola Ingrian. Linguistica Uralica. 2014. Vol. 50. No. 4. P. 258–275.
Sovijärvi 1944
A. Sovijärvi. Foneettis-äännehistoriallinen tutkimus Soikkolan inkeroismurteesta (Suomi-kirjan eripainoksia. Vol. 5). Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 1944.
Suomi et al. 2008
K. Suomi, J. Toivanen, R. Ylitalo. Finnish sound structure. Phone­tics, phonology, phonotactics and prosody. Oulu: University of Oulu, 2008.
Trubetskoy 1960
N. S. Trubetskoy. Osnovy fonologii [Principles of phonology]. Moscow: Foreign Literature Publishing House, 1960.
UPSID 1981
UPSID: UCLA Phonological Segment Inventory Database. Data and Index (UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics. Vol. 53). Los Angeles: UCLA, 1981.
Vakhtin 1996
N. B. Vakhtin. Grenlandskiy yazyk [The Greenlandic language]. A. P. Volodin, N. B. Vakhtin, A. A. Kibrik (eds.). Yazyki mira. Paleoaziatskie yazyki [Languages of the world. Paleo-Asiatic languages]. Moscow: Indrik, 1996. P. 93–100.
Zaykov 1999
P. M. Zaykov. Grammatika karelskogo yazyka (fonetika i morfologiya) [Grammar of the Karelian language (phonetics and morphology)]. Petrozavodsk: Periodika, 1999.
Ingrian language, Finnic languages, phonetics, phonology, affricates, reduction, consonant gradation
E-Library.ruScopusCrossRefCyberLeninkaVAKERIH Plus